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Title          
Sleep Apnea 
   
 
Abstract
Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep. Each episode, called an apnea (Greek: ἄπνοια (ápnoia), from α- (a-), privative, πνέειν (pnéein), to breathe), lasts long enough so that one or more breaths are missed, and such episodes occur repeatedly throughout sleep. The standard definition of any apneic event includes a minimum 10 second interval between breaths, with either a neurological arousal (a 3-second or greater shift in EEG frequency, measured at C3, C4, O1, or O2), a blood oxygen desaturation of 3-4% or greater, or both arousal and desaturation. Sleep apnea is diagnosed with an overnight sleep test called a polysomnogram, or a "Sleep Study" which is often conducted by a pulmonologist.

Clinically significant levels of sleep apnea are defined as five or more episodes per hour of any type of apnea (from the polysomnogram). There are three distinct forms of sleep apnea: central, obstructive, and complex (i.e., a combination of central and obstructive) constituting 0.4%, 84% and 15% of cases respectively.[1] Breathing is interrupted by the lack of respiratory effort in central sleep apnea; in obstructive sleep...
 
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Added By - Ipshita Chakraborty
Subject - Medical Sciences
Document Type - White Board
Video Duration - 00:00:08
 
 
 

 

Title          
Hamiltonian Circuit and Travelling Salesman P... 
   
 
Abstract
Hamiltonian Circuit and Travelling Salesman Problem
 
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Added By - Ipshita Chakraborty
Subject - Computer Science
Document Type - White Board
Video Duration - 00:07:09
 
 
 

 

Title          
Deep Vein Thrombosis 
   
 
Abstract
Deep Vein Thrombosis.
 
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Added By - prakashambady
Subject - Medical Sciences
Document Type - White Board
Video Duration - 00:09:28
 
 
 

 

Title          
Air Traffic Pattern 
   
 
Abstract
An airfield traffic pattern is a standard path followed by aircraft when taking off or landing.

At an airport, the pattern (or circuit in the Commonwealth of Nations) is a conventional standard path for coordinating air traffic. It differs from so-called "straight in approaches" and "direct climb outs" in that aircraft using a traffic pattern remain in close proximity to the airport. Patterns are usually employed at small general aviation (GA) airfields and military airbases. Most large airports avoid the system, unless there is GA activity as well as commercial flights. However, a pattern of sorts is used at airports in some cases, such as when an aircraft is required to go around.

Pilots prefer to take off and land facing into the wind. This has the effect of reducing aircraft speed over ground and hence reducing the distance required to perform either maneuver.

The exception to this rule is at Alpine airports, 'Altiports' where the runway is on a severe slope. In these instances, takeoffs are made downhill and landings uphill, with the slope aiding in acceleration and deceleration.

Many airfields have runways facing a variety of directions. The purpose of this is to pr...
 
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Added By - prashant bharadwaj
Subject - Aeronautics and Astronautics
Document Type - White Board
Video Duration - 00:03:14
 
 
 

 

Title          
Wind Shear 
   
 
Abstract
Strong outflow from thunderstorms causes rapid changes in the three-dimensional wind velocity just above ground level. Initially, this outflow causes a headwind that increases airspeed, which normally causes a pilot to reduce engine power if they are unaware of the wind shear. As the aircraft passes into the region of the downdraft, the localized headwind diminishes, reducing the aircraft's airspeed and increasing its sink rate. Then, when the aircraft passes through the other side of the downdraft, the headwind becomes a tailwind, reducing airspeed further, leaving the aircraft in a low-power, low-speed descent. This can lead to an accident if the aircraft is too low to effect a recovery before ground contact.[15] As the result of the accidents in the 1970s and 1980s, in 1988 the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration mandated that all commercial aircraft have on-board windshear detection systems by 1993. Between 1964 and 1985, wind shear directly caused or contributed to 26 major civil transport aircraft accidents in the U.S. that led to 620 deaths and 200 injuries. Since 1995, the number of major civil aircraft accidents caused by wind shear has dropped to approximately one every ten years, due to the mandated on-board detection ...
 
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Added By - prashant bharadwaj
Subject - Aeronautics and Astronautics
Document Type - White Board
Video Duration - 00:02:00
 
 
 

 

Title          
Finite Difference 
   
 
Abstract
A finite difference is a mathematical expression of the form f(x + b) − f(x + a). If a finite difference is divided by b − a, one gets a difference quotient. The approximation of derivatives by finite differences plays a central role in finite difference methods for the numerical solution of differential equations, especially boundary value problems. In mathematical analysis, operators involving finite differences are studied. A difference operator is an operator which maps a function f to a function whose values are the corresponding finite differences. An important application of finite differences is in numerical analysis, especially in numerical ordinary differential equations and numerical partial differential equations, which aim at the numerical solution of ordinary and partial differential equations respectively. The idea is to replace the derivatives appearing in the differential equation by finite differences that approximate them. The resulting methods are called finite difference methods. Common applications of the finite difference method are in computational science and engineering disciplines, such as thermal engineering, fluid mechanics, etc.
 
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Added By - Ipshita Chakraborty
Subject - Aeronautics and Astronautics
Document Type - White Board
Video Duration - 00:11:05
 
 
 

 

Title          
Investment Banking Beginners Guide - Part 1 
   
 
Abstract
Investment banks help companies and governments (or their agencies) raise money by issuing and selling securities in the capital markets (both equity and debt).

Almost all investment banks also offer strategic advisory services for mergers, acquisitions, divestiture or other financial services for clients, such as the trading of derivatives, fixed income, foreign exchange, commodity, and equity securities.

Trading securities for cash or securities (i.e., facilitating transactions, market-making), or the promotion of securities (i.e., underwriting, research, etc.) is referred to as the "sell side".

The "buy side" constitutes the pension funds, mutual funds, hedge funds, and the investing public who consume the products and services of the sell-side in order to maximize their return on investment. Many firms have both buy and sell side components.
 
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Added By - Ipshita Chakraborty
Subject - Economics
Document Type - White Board
Video Duration - 00:09:25
 
 
 

 

Title          
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 
   
 
Abstract

A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an electrochemical conversion device that produces electricity directly from fuel. Fuel cells are characterized by their electrolyte material and, as the name implies, the SOFC has a solid oxide, or ceramic, electrolyte. Ceramic fuel cells operate at much higher temperatures than polymer based ones.

Solid oxide fuel cells are intended mainly for stationary applications with an output from 100 W to 2 MW. They work at very high temperatures, typically between 700 and 1,000°C. Their off-gases can be used to fire a secondary gas turbine to improve electrical efficiency. This enables efficiency to reach as much as 90% in these hybrid systems, called combined heat and power (CHP) device. In these cells,  

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Added By - sidpatel
Subject - Energy
Document Type - White Board
Video Duration - 00:09:12
 
 
 

 

Title          
Applications of Supply and Demand 
   
 
Abstract
The phrase "supply and demand" was first used by James Denham-Steuart in his Inquiry into the Principles of Political Economy, published in 1767. Adam Smith used the phrase in his 1776 book The Wealth of Nations, and David Ricardo titled one chapter of his 1817 work Principles of Political Economy and Taxation "On the Influence of Demand and Supply on Price".[10]

In The Wealth of Nations, Smith generally assumed that the supply price was fixed but that its "merit" (value) would decrease as its "scarcity" increased, in effect what was later called the law of demand. Ricardo, in Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, more rigorously laid down the idea of the assumptions that were used to build his ideas of supply and demand. Antoine Augustin Cournot first developed a mathematical model of supply and demand in his 1838 Researches on the Mathematical Principles of the Theory of Wealth.

During the late 19th century the marginalist school of thought emerged. This field mainly was started by Stanley Jevons, Carl Menger, and Léon Walras. The key idea was that the price was set by the most expensive price, that is, the price at the margin. This was a substantial change from Adam Smith's thoughts on dete...
 
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Added By - 123456
Subject - Economics
Document Type - White Board
Video Duration - 00:14:04
 
 
 

 

Title          
Fuel Cells 
   
 
Abstract
In essence, a fuel cell works by catalysis, separating the component electrons and protons of the reactant fuel, and forcing the electrons to travel through a circuit, hence converting them to electrical power. Another catalytic process takes the electrons back in, combining them with the protons and the oxidant to form waste products (typically simple compounds like water and carbon dioxide). In the archetypal hydrogen–oxygen proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) design, a proton-conducting polymer membrane, (the electrolyte), separates the anode and cathode sides. This was called a "solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell" (SPEFC) in the early 1970s, before the proton exchange mechanism was well-understood. (Notice that "polymer electrolyte membrane" and "proton exchange membrane" result in the same acronym.) On the anode side, hydrogen diffuses to the anode catalyst where it later dissociates into protons and electrons. The protons are conducted through the membrane to the cathode, but the electrons are forced to travel in an external circuit (supplying power) because the membrane is electrically insulating. On the cathode catalyst, oxygen molecules react with the electrons (which have traveled through the external circu...
 
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Added By - sidpatel
Subject - Energy
Document Type - White Board
Video Duration - 00:07:02
 
 
 

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